Color Glossary

Beet Juice
See Betanin.
Beta Carotene
A carotenoid source of color commonly found in nature, which provides shades ranging from butter yellow to egg yolk shades depending on the application and product form. Natural Beta-Carotene includes sources from algae (Dunaliella salina), and fungi (Blakeslea trispora). Beta-carotene also exists in a synthetized form known as “nature identical.” Beta carotene color is available in both oil-soluble and water-dispersible forms.
Beta-Apo-8′ Carotenal
A red-orange color synthesized form of carotenoid that is oil-soluble. Beta-Apo-8′-carotenal is considered “nature identical,” and can be found in citrus fruits. In the USA, a usage restriction of 15mg/lb of semisolid or solid food exists.
A water-soluble color found as the predominant pigment in red beets (Beta vulgaris). Betanin is found in dried powder forms, beet juice expressed from mature beets, and beet powder from the spray-dried beet juice. Beet products are often used in foods with low water activity.
The oil-soluble form of annatto.
Black Carrot
A common vegetable source of anthocyanins used for food use. Shades range from red to purple depending on the application and pH of the product.
Black Iron Oxide
The black form of the pigment iron oxide. See Iron Oxide.
Black PN
See Brilliant Black BN.
A term used to describe the migration of a soluble dye from a colored portion of a food to an uncolored or differenly colored portion of food.
Brilliant Black BN
A deep-violet to purple synthetic dye. A water-soluble dye with good light stability and very poor heat stability. Not allowed for use in the USA but allowed for use in the EU (Other names: Black PN, E151, CI Food Black 1, CI #28840. CAS #2519-30-4).
Brilliant Blue FCF
See FD&C Blue #1.
Brilliant Green S
See Green S.
Brix (or Degree Brix, Bx) is the sugar content of an aqueous solution. It is based on the amount of light that bends (refractometry) when passing through a liquid. One degree Brix is equivalent to 1 gram of sucrose in 100 grams of solution.
Brown HT
Chocolate brown water-soluble synthetic azo dye. Not permitted for use in the USA but allowed in the EU (Other names: Chocolate Brown HT, E155, CI Food Brown 3, CI #20285).
Buffering Agents
Buffering agents are food additives included in some color systems to ensure stability when pH is a concern. Examples of common buffering agents used by the color industry are: calcium carbonate, potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP).
Burnt Sugar
See Caramel Color.